Understanding mark price

Important: Perpetual futures trading is high risk and only available to eligible professional investors in select locations and subject to regulatory approval. Perpetual futures are not available in Hong Kong or to Hong Kong users.

What is Mark Price?

Mark Price refers to the fair value of the perpetual contract at the current time. Unlike the market price or the last trade price, both of which can be influenced by temporary market fluctuations and are expected to have a higher volatility, the Mark Price mitigates idiosyncratic price fluctuations and reduces the risk of forced liquidations.

Why do we need Mark Price?

Mark Price is a valuable tool as it provides stability and fairness in perpetual trading which helps to mitigate abnormal price movements and reduce the risk of forced liquidations. Mark price also serves as a safeguard against manipulative trading as it more accurately reflects derivative values in highly uncertain markets. It can also react more quickly to broader market movements.

How is the Mark Price used?

  • Liquidation: Mark price is used as reference price for liquidation. When a partial liquidation or full liquidation event takes place, the liquidation engine sends limit orders at relative ratios to the mark price when it seeks to reduce or close all open perpetual positions. Learn more about how liquidation works.

  • Funding: Funding payments in perpetual contracts are used to ensure that the market price of the perpetual futures market is correlated to its underlying price over the medium to long term. For instance, the BTC/USDC PERP perpetuals market should be correlated to the BTC/USDC spot market price. You will receive or pay more or less funding depending on the relative difference between the Mark Price and the Index Price.

  • Risk management: Mark Price provides a stable and reliable reference price to calculate mark-to-market profits and losses, which allows for a more controlled approach to managing positions and prevent unnecessary liquidations.

How is the Mark Price calculated?

Every second we recalculate the value

Mark Price = Index Price * (1 + PREMIUM)


PREMIUM = EMA((Last Trade Price - Index Price) / Index Price, 30 seconds)

EMA(x, y) = exponential moving average of the input signal x, with a half-life decay of y

Although Mark Price is updated every second PREMIUM is only updated while trading is enabled for the given market. If trading is disabled or there is an outage then PREMIUM is not updated.

Note: Bullish reserves the right to change the above methodology without prior notice.

Comparing Mark Price, Index Price and market price

Type Overview
Mark Price Fair value of a perpetual contract, used for liquidations, funding calculations, and risk management.
Index Price Consensus price of a given asset across a number of reputable exchanges, used in funding calculations and risk management.
Market Price Current price of a given market that is being traded in the Bullish exchange.



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